Daily and Monthly Active Users (DAU and MAU)

For the purposes of DAU, a desktop profile is considered active if it sends any main ping. See the next section for analogous definitions on top of mobile products.

  • Dates are defined by submission_date.

DAU is the number of clients sending a main ping on a given day.

MAU is the number of unique clients who have been a DAU on any day in the last 28 days. In other words, any client that contributes to DAU in the last 28 days would also contribute to MAU for that day. Note that this is not simply the sum of DAU over 28 days, since any particular client could be active on many days.

WAU is the number of unique clients who have been a DAU on any day in the last 7 days. Caveats above for MAU also apply to WAU.

To make the time boundaries more clear, let's consider a particular date 2019-01-28. The DAU number assigned to 2019-01-28 should consider all main pings received during 2019-01-28 UTC. We cannot observe the full data until 2019-01-28 closes (and in practice we need to wait a bit longer since we are usually referencing derived datasets like clients_daily that are updated once per day over several hours following midnight UTC), so the earliest we can calculate this value is on 2019-01-29. If plotted as a time series, this value should always be plotted at the point labeled 2019-01-28. Likewise, MAU for 2019-01-28 should consider a 28 day range that includes main pings received on 2019-01-28 and back to beginning of day UTC 2019-01-01. Again, the earliest we can calculate the value is on 2019-01-29.

For quick analysis, using firefox_desktop_exact_mau28_by_dimensions is recommended. Below is an example query for getting MAU, WAU, and DAU for 2018 using firefox_desktop_exact_mau28_by_dimensions.

SELECT
  submission_date,
  SUM(mau) AS mau,
  SUM(wau) AS wau,
  SUM(dau) AS dau
FROM
  telemetry.firefox_desktop_exact_mau28_by_dimensions
WHERE
  submission_date_s3 >= '2018-01-01'
  AND submission_date_s3 < '2019-01-01'
GROUP BY
  submission_date
ORDER BY
  submission_date

For analysis of dimensions not available in firefox_desktop_exact_mau28_by_dimensions, using clients_last_seen is recommended. Below is an example query for getting MAU, WAU, and DAU by app_version for 2018 using clients_last_seen.

SELECT
  submission_date,
  app_version,
  -- days_since_seen is always between 0 and 28, so MAU could also be
  -- calculated with COUNT(days_since_seen) or COUNT(*)
  COUNTIF(days_since_seen < 28) AS mau,
  COUNTIF(days_since_seen < 7) AS wau,
  -- days_since_* values are always between 0 and 28 or null, so DAU could also
  -- be calculated with COUNTIF(days_since_seen = 0)
  COUNTIF(days_since_seen < 1) AS dau
FROM
  telemetry.clients_last_seen
WHERE
  submission_date_s3 >= '2018-01-01'
  AND submission_date_s3 < '2019-01-01'
GROUP BY
  submission_date,
  app_version
ORDER BY
  submission_date,
  app_version

For analysis of only DAU, using clients_daily is more efficient than clients_last_seen. Getting MAU and WAU from clients_daily is not recommended. Below is an example query for getting DAU for 2018 using clients_daily.

SELECT
  submission_date_s3,
  COUNT(*) AS dau
FROM
  telemetry.clients_daily
WHERE
  -- In BigQuery use yyyy-MM-DD, e.g. '2018-01-01'
  submission_date_s3 >= '20180101'
  AND submission_date_s3 < '20190101'
GROUP BY
  submission_date_s3
ORDER BY
  submission_date_s3

main_summary can also be used for getting DAU. Below is an example query using a 1% sample over March 2018 using main_summary:

SELECT
  submission_date_s3,
  -- Note: this does not include NULL client_id in count where above methods do
  COUNT(DISTINCT client_id) * 100 AS DAU
FROM
  telemetry.main_summary
WHERE
  sample_id = '51'
  -- In BigQuery use yyyy-MM-DD, e.g. '2018-03-01'
  AND submission_date_s3 >= '20180301'
  AND submission_date_s3 < '20180401'
GROUP BY
  submission_date_s3
ORDER BY
  submission_date_s3

Mobile Products

The concept of usage is slightly different for mobile products compared to desktop Firefox. A single session of desktop Firefox is likely to span multiple days and we rely on a process to send a main ping once per day. A single session of a mobile application is likely to last only a few minutes and we have generally instrumented mobile applications to send a separate ping for each user session:

  • core pings are the canonical measure for usage on legacy mobile products
  • baseline pings are the canonical measure for usage on mobile products using the Glean SDK

A given client is considered "active" for a given mobile product on a given day if we receive at least one of the above pings. Otherwise, the definitions of DAU and MAU for individual mobile products are identical to those used for desktop Firefox. See Choosing a Mobile Product Dataset for an overview of the various products and which telemetry approach they use.

Note: As of March 2020, Fenix (the new Firefox for Android) is using a modified definition of usage which considers a user active for a given day based on any baseline or metrics ping being submitted on the given day. There is an open proposal for Fenix KPI reporting changes to move Fenix reporting to consider only baseline pings.

For quick analysis, use firefox_nondesktop_exact_mau28_by_dimensions. This table has a product dimension used to differentiate different applications. Not that exact naming for applications and channels is sometimes different between analyses. You can retrieve the list of names used here via query:

SELECT
  product
FROM
  `moz-fx-data-shared-prod.telemetry.firefox_nondesktop_exact_mau28_by_dimensions`
WHERE
  submission_date = '2020-03-01'
GROUP BY
  product
ORDER BY
  COUNT(*) DESC

/*
Returns:
  Fennec Android
  Fennec iOS
  Focus Android
  Fenix
  FirefoxForFireTV
  Firefox Lite
  Focus iOS
  Lockwise Android
  FirefoxConnect
*/

Combining metrics from multiple products

Telemetry is collected independently for each Mozilla product. To protect user privacy, we intentionally do not include any identifiers that can be used to link a given client or user across multiple products. As a result, when we consider overall "mobile MAU", we are taking a simple sum of MAU as measured independently for each product. Analyses should keep in mind that any given user could be contributing multiple points to MAU by sending telemetry from multiple applications. Forecasts should also generally only be prepared per-product for this reason.

This causes some particularly interesting effects for the case of migrating users from one application to another as is the case with Firefox for Android in 2020. A highly active user who migrates will go from sending multiple Fennec core pings per day to sending multiple Fenix baseline pings per day. On the day of migration, they will have sent pings from both applications and thus will count towards Fennec metrics and Fenix metrics. It will take a full 28 days for the client to finally fall out of the MAU window for Fennec, so we should expect to see inflation in the overall "mobile MAU" sum during periods of heavy migration.